As a social science research project, INLOCADE is committed to producing high-class academic publications about the institutionalization of low carbon development. In addition, we will engage with numerous stakeholders and collaborate with partners in Germany and abroad.

We will regularly update this page as soon as new publications are available. Please do not hesitate to contact us if you have any questions concerning our approach, results, or any possible collaboration.


Find a brief selection of key publications from the previous project on carbon governance arrangements in the nation-state as well as an extended list of project-related relevant literature. We will update this section with research outcomes over the course of the project.

Elsässer, J. P., Hickmann, T. and Stehle, F. (2018) ‘The Role of Cities in South Africa’s Energy Gridlock’, Case Studies in the Environment, 2(1), pp. 1–7. doi: 10.1525/cse.2018.001297.

Fuhr, H., Hickmann, T. and Kern, K. (2018) ‘The role of cities in multi-level climate governance: local climate policies and the 1.5 °C target’, Current Opinion in Environmental Sustainability, 30, pp. 1–6. doi: 10.1016/j.cosust.2017.10.006.

Hickmann, T. et al. (2017) ‘Carbon Governance Arrangements and the Nation-State: The Reconfiguration of Public Authority in Developing Countries’, Public Administration and Development, 37(5), pp. 331–343. doi: 10.1002/pad.1814.

Hickmann, T. and Stehle, F. (2019) ‘The Embeddedness of Urban Climate Politics in Multilevel Governance: A Case Study of South Africa’s Major Cities’, The Journal of Environment & Development, 28(1), pp. 54–77. doi: 10.1177/1070496518819121.

Höhne, C. (2018) ‘From “Talking the Talk” to “Walking the Walk”?: Multi-Level Global Governance of the Anthropocene in Indonesia’, in Hickmann, T. et al. (eds) The Anthropocene Debate and Political Science. London: Routledge, pp. 124–145.

Höhne, C. et al. (2018) ‘REDD+ and the Reconfiguration of Public Authority in the Forest Sector A Comparative Case Study of Indonesia and Brazil’, in Global Forest Governance and Climate Change. Cham: Springer International Publishing, pp. 203–241. doi: 10.1007/978-3-319-71946-7_8.

Lederer, M. (2015) ‘Global governance’, in Bäckstrand, K. and Lövbrand, E. (eds) Research Handbook on Climate Governance. London: Edward Elgar Publishing, pp. 3–13. doi: 10.4337/9781783470600.00009.

Lederer, M. (2017) ‘Carbon Trading: Who Gets What, When, and How?’, Global Environmental Politics, 17(3), pp. 134–140. doi: 10.1162/GLEP_a_00419.

Lederer, Markus and Chris Höhne (2019): Max Weber in the tropics: How global climate politics facilitates the bureaucratization of forestry in Indonesia, in: Regulation and Governance, pp. 1-19, online first: doi:10.1111/rego.12270.

Lederer, Markus, Chris Höhne, Fee Stehle, Thomas Hickmann, Harald Fuhr (2020): Multilevel climate governance in Brazil and Indonesia. Domestic pioneership and leadership in the Global South, in: Wurzel, Rüdiger K.W., Mikael Skou Andersen, Paul Tobin: Climate Governance across the Globe. Pioneers, Leaders and Followers, Milton Park: Routledge, pp. 101-119.

Stehle, Fee, Thomas Hickmann, Markus Lederer, Chris Höhne (2020): Urban Climate Politics in Emerging Economies: A Multi-Level Governance Perspective, in: Urbanisation, pp. 1-17, online first: doi.org/10.1177/2455747120913185.

Stehle, F. et al. (2019) ‘The Effects of Transnational Municipal Networks on Urban Climate Politics in the Global South’, in Heijden, J. van der, Bulkeley, H., and Certomà, C. (eds) Urban Climate Politics. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, pp. 210–230. doi: 10.1017/9781108632157.012.

Turnhout, E. et al. (2017) ‘Envisioning REDD+ in a post-Paris era: between evolving expectations and current practice’, Wiley Interdisciplinary Reviews: Climate Change, 8(1), p. e425. doi: 10.1002/wcc.425.

Acharya, A (2004) How Ideas Spread: Whose Norms Matter? Norm Localization and Institutional Change in Asian Regionalism. International Organization 58 (2), 239-275.

Alcantara, C, Broschek, J, Nelles, J (2016) Rethinking Multilevel Governance as an Instance of Multilevel Politics: A Conceptual Strategy. Territory, Politics, Governance 4 (1), 33-51.

Andrews, M (2013) The Limits of Institutional Reform in Development: Changing Rules for Realistic Solutions. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge/UK.

Andrews, M, Pritchett, L, Woolcock, M (2017) Building State Capability: Evidence, Analysis, Action. Oxford University Press, Oxford/UK, 277.

Arakelyan, I, Moran, D, Wreford, A (2017) Climate smart agriculture: a critical review. In: Nunan, F (ed.), Making Climate Compatible Development Happen, 66-86. Routledge, London.

Averchenkova, A, Matikainen, S (2016) Assessing the consistency of national mitigation actions in the G20 with the Paris Agreement, Grantham Research Institute on Climate Change and the Environment, London. Barber, BR (2013) If Mayors Ruled the World. Dysfunctional Nations. Rising Cities. Yale University Press, New Haven, MA.

Beach, D (2018) Achieving Methodological Alignment When Combining QCA and Process tracing in Practice. 47 (1), 64-99.

Benecke, G (2009) Varieties of Carbon Governance: Taking Stock of the Local Carbon Market in India. Journal of Environment and Development 18 (4), 346-370.

Berg-Schlosser, D, De Meur, G (2009) Comparative Research Design: Case and Variable Section. In: Rihoux, B, Ragin, CC (eds) Configurational Comparative Methods. Qualitative Comparative Analysis (QCA) and Related Techniques, 19-32. Applied Social Research Methods Series, Sage, Los Angeles, United States.

Bernauer, T, Böhmelt, T (2013) National climate policies in international comparison: The Climate Change Cooperation Index. Environmental Science & Policy 25, 196-206.

Bernstein, S, Hoffmann, M (2018) The politics of decarbonization and the catalytic impact of subnational climate experiments. Policy Sciences 51 (2), 189-211.

Bersch, K, Praça, S, Taylor, MM (2017) State Capacity, Bureaucratic Politicization, and Corruption in the Brazilian State. Governance 30 (1), 105-124.

Blatter, J, Haverland, M (2012) Designing Case Studies. Explanatory Approaches in Small-N Research. Palgrave, Houndsmill, United Kingdom.

Bloomfield, A (2015) Norm antipreneurs and theorising resistance to normative change. Review of International Studies 42 (2), 310-333.

Blyth, M (2002) Great Transformations – Economic Ideas and Institutional Change in the Twentieth Century. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge.

Bogner, A, Littig, B, Menz, W. (eds.) (2009) Interviewing Experts. Palgrave Macmillan, London.

Brockhaus, M, Korhonen-Kurki, K, Sehring, J et al. (2017) REDD+, transformational change and the promise of performance-based payments: a qualitative comparative analysis. Climate Policy 17 (6), 708-730.

Bulkeley, H, Castán Broto, V (2013) Government by experiment? Global cities and the governing of climate change. Transactions of the Institute of British Geographers 38 (3), 361-375.

Burck, J, Marten, F, Bals, C, Höhne, N (2018) The Climate Change Performance Index. Results 2018, Germanwatch, Bonn.

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Elsässer, J, Hickmann, T, Stehle, F (2018) The Role of Cities in South Africa’s Energy Gridlock. Case Studies in the Environment 2, 1-7.

Emmenegger, P, Kvist, J, Skaaning, S-E (2013) Making the Most of Configurational Comparative Analysis: An Assessment of QCA Applications in Comparative Welfare-State Research. Political Research Quarterly 66 (1), 185-190.

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Fuhr, H, Lederer, M (2009) Varieties of Carbon Governance in Newly Industrializing Countries. The Journal of Environment & Development 18 (4), 327-345.

Fuhr, H, Hickmann, T, Kern, K (2018) The role of cities in multi-level climate governance: local climate policies and the 1.5 °C target. 30, 1-6.

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Gupta, J (2007) The Multi-Level Governance Challenge of Climate Change. Environmental Sciences 4 (3), 131-137.

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Hickmann, T (2013) Private Authority in Global Climate Governance: The Case of the Clean Development Mechanism. Climate and Development 5 (1), 46-54.

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Hickmann, T, Fuhr, H, Höhne, C, Lederer, M, Stehle, F (2017) Carbon Governance Arrangements and the Nation-State: The Reconfiguration of Public Authority in Developing Countries. Public Administration and Development 37 (5), 331-343.

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Höhne, C (2018) From “Talking the Talk” to “Walking the Walk”?: Multi-Level Global Governance of the Anthropocene in Indonesia. In: Hickmann, T, Partzsch, L, Pattberg, P, Weiland, S (eds) The Anthropocene Debate and Political Science, 124-145. Research Series in Global Environmental Governance, Routledge, London.

Höhne, C, Fuhr, H, Hickmann, T, Lederer, M, Stehle, F (2018) REDD+ and the Reconfiguration of Public Authority in the Forest Sector: A Comparative Case Study of Indonesia and Brazil. In: Nuesiri, EO (ed.), Global Forest Governance and Climate Change:

Interrogating Representation, Participation, and Decentralization, 203-241. Palgrave Studies in Natural Resource Management, Palgrave Macmillan.

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— (2003) Unraveling the Central State, but How? Types of Multi-Level Governance. The American Political Science Review 97 (2), 233-243.

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Jaglin, S (2014) Urban Energy Policies and the Governance of Multilevel Issues in Cape Town. Urban Studies 51 (7), 1394-1414.

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Lederer, M (2012) REDD+ governance. Wiley Interdisciplinary Reviews: Climate Change 3 (1), 107-113.

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Lederer, M, Höhne, C (under review) Max Weber in the Tropics: The Bureaucratization of Forestry through REDD+. 26.

Lederer, M, Wallbott, L, Bauer, S (2018) Tracing sustainability transformations – drivers of Green Economy approaches in the Global South. Journal of Environment and Development 27 (1), 3-25.

Lederer, M, Wallbott, L, Urban, F (2019 ) Green Transformations and State Bureaucracy. In: Fouquet, R (ed.), Handbook on Green Growth, Edward Elgar, Cheltenham.

Lederer, M, Höhne, C, Stehle, F (Forthcoming) External REDD+ Advocates and Nation-States in the Global South. 37.

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Stakeholder engagement

INLOCADE is a practically-oriented research project. Through intensive field research as well as regular consultations with experts and relevant stakeholders we are engaging with the broad community involved in climate action. Stakeholders include, but are not limited to the following groups:

  • National and local government officials
  • International organizations and transnational networks
  • Civil society organizations
  • Businesses and private sector initiatives
  • Donors and development assistance